The American Soul


Lesson 1 | Lesson 2| Lesson 3 | Lesson 4 | Lesson 5 | Lesson 6

Resources and books cited:

AG: America’s God
Believers, Thinkers, and Founders: How We Came to Be One Nation Under God
HSUSAC: A History of the United States and Canada
If You Can Keep It: The Forgotten Promise of American Liberty
KQ: Kings & Queens of England and Scotland
Roger Williams (Lives and Legacies Series)
RHA: The Religious History of America
RWCAS: Roger Williams and the Creation of the American Soul
The Miracle of America
Roger Williams: Proto-American Hero

Lesson 1

Slides | Handout

<![if !supportLists]>I.
American Idea

<![if !supportLists]>a.    <![endif]>What is America?

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>What comes to mind when I mention the

<![if !supportLists]>1.    <![endif]>America

<![if !supportLists]>2.    <![endif]>Liberty

<![if !supportLists]>3.    <![endif]>Freedom

<![if !supportLists]>4.    <![endif]>American Exceptionalism


<![if !supportLists]>b.   <![endif]>Something new: the nation as idea

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>How are nations created?
Historically, we see two ways:

<![if !supportLists]>1.    <![endif]>Ethnic groups – people bound together
by tribe, language, and ethnicity – think England, Germany, Egypt, Israel  

<![if !supportLists]>2.    <![endif]>Empires – people bound together by a
strong leader – think Alexander the Great, the Roman Empire or, in modern
times, Saddam Hussain’s Iraq (composed of Shia Arabs, Sunni Arabs, and Kurds).


<![if !supportLists]>3.    <![endif]>America – Author Eric Metaxas writes,
“The country born in 1776 however, fit neither of these categories . . . It was
a nation held together by an idea and by citizens who bought into that idea . .
. It was nothing more and nothing less than this singular idea that held
America and Americans together, and the idea in which they believed was, in a
word, liberty.” (IYCKI, 18-19)


More specifically, the
concepts of inherent rights granted by God, and power that resided in the
people, rather than their leaders, was central to the American idea.




<![if !supportLists]>c.    <![endif]>How did we get here?

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Soon after the close of the New
Testament, the Church began to spread throughout the world. In the last
centuries of the Roman Empire, which finally fell around 476 AD. On Christmas
Day of the year 890, Charlemagne was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo

Charlemagne didn’t listen much to the Pope, but the coronation gave his reign
the appearance of being blessed by the Church and thus, by God. This started a
relationship between the church and Western Europe where the kings and queens
of “Christian” nations were seen to rule with God’s authority through the
blessing of the Church.




Fast-forward 700 years.
The year is 1509, and Henry VIII becomes king of England after the death of his
father, Henry VII. Henry’s sister, Margaret, had moved to Scotland and married
her distant cousin, King James IV (this will be important later). Henry’s older
brother, Arthur had died 7 years earlier at the age of 15, leaving a widow,
Catherine of Aragon, the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, the rulers of
Spain who had financed Columbus’ famous voyage in 1492.


Henry got permission from
the Pope to violate Catholic law and marry Catherine (mostly to preserve the
political relationship with Spain). Catherine gave birth eight times, but the
only child that survived was a daughter, Mary. Because she didn’t produce a
male heir, Henry was certain the he was cursed by God for marrying his
brother’s widow.


The Pope would not grant
Henry’s request to annul the marriage, mostly to prevent offending Catherine’s
nephew, Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor at the time. There’s a lot more
detail here, but suffice it to say that Henry ended up cutting off ties with
the Catholic Church, and setting himself up as the head of the Church of



Now, for the first time
in centuries, the King ruled apart from the blessing of the Pope. After Henry
died, his son, Edward VI, at the ripe-old age of eleven, completely outlawed
Catholicism. The country became Catholic again under Henry’s daughter Mary, who
violently persecuted protestants, burning many of them at the stake, then
Protestant again under Mary’s half-sister, Elizabeth I (and all this in a
period of 10 years!)



When Elizabeth died
childless in 1603, the closest heir to the throne was James VI of Scotland.


Remember I told you to
remember Henry VIII’s sister, Margaret, who had married the King of Scotland?

James VI was their
great-grandson, and a committed Protestant – specifically a Presbyterian.


This was the King James
that commissioned the King James Bible, the one who the Pilgrims fled (we’ll
talk more about next week), and the one who introduced to England an important
concept known as the Divine Right of Kings.


The Divine Right of Kings
taught that kings derived their authority from God and could not therefore be
held accountable for their actions by any earthly authority such as a
parliament or the church.


So, the political climate
of England, in less than one hundred years, had moved from a belief that the
King answered to the Pope and to God, to the idea that the King’s word was law,
and could not be questioned by any man.


This idea prompted a lot
of thought and writings that were very influential on the political ideas of America’s
early settlers and founders.


<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>16th and 17th

<![if !supportLists]>1.    <![endif]>John Ponet – A Short Treatise of Political Power, and the True Obedience which
Subjects Owe to Kings and Other Civil Governors, with An Exhortation to All
True and Natural Englishmen

<![if !supportLists]>a.    <![endif]>Anglican bishop

<![if !supportLists]>b.   <![endif]>Writing during Mary’s reign

<![if !supportLists]>c.    <![endif]>“contains all the essential
principles of liberty, which were after dilated upon by [Algernon] Sidney and
[John] Locke.”

<![if !supportLists]>d.   <![endif]>Wrote about just opposition to unjust
rulers – including tyrannicide.

<![if !supportLists]>2.    <![endif]>Stephen Junius Brutus – Vindicae Contra Tyrannos

<![if !supportLists]>a.    <![endif]>Latin for “A Defense against Tyrants”

<![if !supportLists]>b.   <![endif]>Unknown author

<![if !supportLists]>c.    <![endif]>Frenchmen Hubert Languet and Philippe
de Mornay suggested

<![if !supportLists]>d.   <![endif]>Asks and answers 4 questions

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>2 on whether a people may rebel when
their king breaks the Divine law

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Whether people can resist the king if
he is destroying the country

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Whether foreign rulers can legally
support a rebellion

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Answers “YES’ to all of them

<![if !supportLists]>e.    <![endif]>Used biblical arguments to show the
right of the people to resist was based on a political covenant between the
people, rulers, and God.

<![if !supportLists]>3.    <![endif]>Samuel Rutherford – Lex Rex

<![if !supportLists]>a.    <![endif]>Scottish Presbyterian minister

<![if !supportLists]>b.   <![endif]>Writing under the reign of King
James’ son, Charles I

<![if !supportLists]>c.    <![endif]>Argued that the Law is King, opposite
to the traditional Rex Lex, the king
is law.

<![if !supportLists]>d.   <![endif]>Did not support religious tolerance, but
served as a support for the concept of the “Rule of Law” so important to
America’s founders.


<![if !supportLists]>d.   <![endif]>The basis of Liberty

The idea that it is
rational to think that we are free, intelligent creatures of a free,
intelligent Creator, isn’t confined to Christianity. It has a long and
distinguished pedigree, and profoundly influenced America’s founders.


The founders wrestled
with the great fundamental questions of society:

<![if !supportLists]>·      <![endif]>Why does government exist, and what
place or meaning does it have in our lives?

<![if !supportLists]>·      <![endif]>What are the origins of government
and laws?

<![if !supportLists]>·      <![endif]>What is the appropriate nature and
aim of government?

<![if !supportLists]>·      <![endif]>How can government really serve, as
well as recognize, human nature?


<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Philosophical Precursors

<![if !supportLists]>1.    <![endif]>Ancient writers

<![if !supportLists]>a.    <![endif]>Aristotle (Greece – 384 BC – 322 BC)

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>“The first mover, then, exists of
necessity . . . and it is in this sense a first principle . . . On such a
principle depend the heavens and the world of nature.” BTF 81

<![if !supportLists]>b.
(Rome – 106 BC – 43 BC)

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>“[True law] is not one thing at Rome,
and another thing at Athens; one thing today and another thing tomorrow; but at
all times and in all nations   . . .must
forever reign, eternal and imperishable.” BTF 116

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>The essentials of right and wrong do
not change, not across time or across geographical boundaries. What is just and
true by nature comes to us from God and remains true whether or not we obey it.

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Thomas Jefferson: [The Declaration]
aimed to capture “the sentiments of the day [including the important thoughts
of] Aristotle, Cicero, Locke, Sidney, etc.”

<![if !supportLists]>c.    <![endif]>Seneca (Rome – 3 BC – 65 AD)

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>“This was the intention of the great
creator of the universe   . . . That only
the most worthless of our possessions should fall under the control of another.
All that is best for a man lies beyond the power of other men, who can neither
give it nor take it away.” BTF 118

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>James Madison echoed Seneca, “[The
government is] to protect property of every sort [including] the rights of
individuals . . . [the just government] impartially secures to every man,
whatever is his own.” BTF 116-17

<![if !supportLists]>II.

<![if !supportLists]>a.    <![endif]>Virginia and Massachusetts

<![if !supportLists]>


<![if !supportLists]>1.    <![endif]>History

<![if !supportLists]>a.    <![endif]>When Henry VII died in 1547, the
protestants advising his son, Edward, worked hard to accelerate religious
change – in their mind, pushing the English Reformation to its logical

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Gave the Archbishop of Canterbury (Thomas
Cranmer) a lot of authority

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Encouraged removal of Catholic
practices (Remember that Edward outlawed the Catholic mass in 1549)

<![if !supportLists]>b.   <![endif]>When Mary came into power in 1533, 288
protestants were burned as heretics (including Cranmer)

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Many protestants managed to lie low,
or escape England, with large numbers of them going to Calvinist regions of
Europe, particularly Switzerland and southwestern Germany

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Here, in cities set up by Calvin to
fully integrate religious and secular life, they saw a vision of what they’d
love their homeland to look like, if they ever had that opportunity.

<![if !supportLists]>c.    <![endif]>When Elizabeth was crowned in 1558,
many returned, hopeful that they could continue the work of reforming the
Church of England into a pure, Protestant, model.

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>These hopes never turned into
reality, though, as Elizabeth worked to stabilize her country by
re-establishing a Protestantism that the Puritans still felt reeked of Catholic

<![if !supportLists]>d.   <![endif]>When James, from largely Calvinist
Scotland arrived in 1603, many thought their prayers had been answered.  However, the king tightened the church/state
relationship more than ever, believing his rule to be divinely appointed, and
“demanded stricter conformity”  to the
Church of England than ever.

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Edwin Gaustad wrote, “To stay in
England meant either to conform, at great cost to the Puritans’ consciences, or
to enter prison, at great cost to their welfare and perhaps even their
lives.  Some who despaired of ever
reforming the bureaucratic Church of England even withdrew from that national
body, thereby making themselves targets for arrest and imprisonment.” LAL, 3

<![if !supportLists]>e.    <![endif]>Charles

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Believed strongly in the Divine Right
of Kings

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Was brought up Calvinist, but had
strong Arminian sympathies. Tried to move Church of England away from Calvinism

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Ruled for over a decade without

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Gave courts arbitrary authority to
“suppress political and religious opposition to his rule. KQ, 68


<![if !supportLists]>f.     <![endif]>Plymouth

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Under James I, one puritan
congregation from Scrooby, in Nottinghamshire, left for Holland to pursue more
religious freedom. The found freedom in Holland, but did not like Dutch
culture. Feeling that their children would be led away from the faith in
Holland, they headed back to England after a dozen years, and prepared to
travel to the New World.

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>These Puritans were separatists. They
were not trying to reform the Church of England, but to separate from it. LAL,


<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]> In 1620 the Mayflower carried about 130 people
across the Atlantic, landing at what would become Plymouth, MA. On Nov 11,
Before disembarking from their ship, 41 of the men got together and made a
covenant with one another to unite them in a common purpose. This document is
known as the Mayflower Compact


<![if !supportLists]>1.    <![endif]>“In the name of God, Amen. We, whose
names are underwritten, the loyal subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord King
James, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King,
defender of the Faith, etc.

Having undertaken, for the Glory of God, and advancements of the Christian
faith and honor of our King and Country, a voyage to plant the first colony in
the Northern parts of Virginia, do by these presents, solemnly and mutually, in
the presence of God, and one another, covenant and combine ourselves together
into a civil body politic; for our better ordering, and preservation and
furtherance of the ends aforesaid; and by virtue hereof to enact, constitute,
and frame, such just and equal laws, ordinances, acts, constitutions, and
offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for
the general good of the colony; unto which we promise all due submission and

In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names at Cape Cod the 11th
of November, in the year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord King James, of England,
France, and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth, 1620.”


<![if !supportLists]>g.    <![endif]>Boston

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>In 1628 another group of Puritans
purchased the controlling interest in the New England Company, and reorganized
it to emphasize colonization, rather than trading.

<![if !supportLists]>1.    <![endif]>These Puritans were not separatists.
They hoped to reform the Church of England. LAL, 6

<![if !supportLists]>2.    <![endif]>Received a charter from the King, and
brought 1000 settlers to the Massachusetts Bay in 1630, settling Boston.

<![if !supportLists]>3.    <![endif]>First English chartered colony whose
board of governors did not reside in England.

<![if !supportLists]>4.    <![endif]>Absorbed the Plymouth colony in 1691.

<![if !supportLists]>h.   <![endif]>There were also Puritan colonies at
New Haven, founded in 1638, and Connecticut, founded in 1636.

<![if !supportLists]>2.    <![endif]>Beliefs HCUSAC, 33-35

<![if !supportLists]>a.    <![endif]>Mankind must depend entirely upon God
for salvation.

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Believed that men are “sinners who will not choose to be reconciled to God
unless God initiates the process of their salvation.”

<![if !supportLists]>b.   <![endif]>The Bible is regulative – Christians should do only what is specifically
directed in the Bible.

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>More restrictive than what Lutherans
and Anglicans believed (that believers shouldn’t do anything prohibited by Scripture).

<![if !supportLists]>c.    <![endif]>God created society, Church and
State, individual and public, as a complimentary, inter-connected whole, and
that all of life, whether public or private, should reflect God’s glory.

<![if !supportLists]>d.   <![endif]>God relates to people through
covenants – solemn agreements.

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>The covenant of grace, where God offers
salvation to those who have faith in Christ

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Local churches form when people
covenant together to serve and worship God as a unit

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Nations, especially those with
special insight into biblical truths, are blessed as they follow biblical

<![if !supportLists]>3.    <![endif]>Colonial structure

<![if !supportLists]>a.    <![endif]>Church membership central

<![if !supportLists]>

<![if !supportLists]>1.    <![endif]>Live pure and moral lives

<![if !supportLists]>2.    <![endif]>Accept Puritan doctrines

<![if !supportLists]>3.    <![endif]>Give credible testimony of conversion

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Members covenanted together to form
independent church congregations

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Required for political involvement

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Full membership only open to men

<![if !supportLists]>1.    <![endif]>Women had more rights than in
England, but could not take part in political life.

<![if !supportLists]>b.   <![endif]>Government

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Because of their belief in Covenant
theology, and in Church and State being created to complement each other,
involvement in public life fulfilled a social covenant with God.

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Because membership in the church
opened the ability to participate politically, there was no political coercion
like they had known in England.

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Magistrates were tasked with keeping
the law, and with promoting the morality of society.


<![if !supportLists]>

<![if !supportLists]>1.    <![endif]>Settlement

<![if !supportLists]>a.    <![endif]>King James chartered two companies in
1606 to set up settlements in the New World – the Plymouth Company, and the
London Company

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Charter: “. . . We, greatly
commending, and graciously accepting of, their Desires for the Furtherance of
so noble a Work, which may, by the Providence of Almighty God, hereafter tend
to the Glory of his Divine Majesty, in propagating of Christian Religion to
such People, as yet live in Darkness and miserable Ignorance of the true
Knowledge and Worship of God, and may in time bring the Infidels and Savages,
living in those parts, to human Civility, and to a settled and quiet
Government: DO, by these our Letters Patents, graciously accept of, and agree
to, their humble and well-intended Desires; . . .”


<![if !supportLists]>b.   <![endif]>Landed in Virginia in 1607 and
established Jamestown

<![if !supportLists]>c.    <![endif]>When John Smith married Pocahontas,
it was, in part, out of a desire to spread the Christian faith to the Indians.
He wrote, “I will never cease until I have accomplished and brought to
perfection so holy a worke, in which I will daily pray God to blesse me to mine
and her eternal happiness.” HCUSAC, 37

<![if !supportLists]>d.   <![endif]>Created specifically for the seeking
of fortune, acquiring land, and converting the “savages”

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Gaustad: “The Spanish had found gold
and silver in their colonies; these first Virginians found none. Neither did
they find other natural resources to exploit or profitable crops to raise for
export.” RHA, 37

<![if !supportLists]>e.    <![endif]>The growing and exporting of tobacco
eventually made the Virginia economy work

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>The labor required for growing
tobacco prompted the introduction of black slaves into the colonies.

<![if !supportLists]>f.     <![endif]>By 1620, tobacco production was high
enough that the colony arranged sales to the Netherlands. But the English
passed laws that made this impossible and, in 1624, the King rewrote Virginia’s
charter, taking control for himself.

<![if !supportLists]>g.    <![endif]>Virginia would now operate with a
royally appointed governor and an elected assembly. It continues this way until


<![if !supportLists]>2.    <![endif]>Church

<![if !supportLists]>a.    <![endif]>The Virginia legislature, in 1619,
made the Church of England the officially established church for the colony       

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>The colony was divided into parishes

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>The only religious standard that was
tolerated was the 39 articles of the Church of England

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>The earliest legal code made Sunday
church attendance mandatory, and had harsh penalties for violating the Sabbath,
adultery, and excessive dress. HCUSAC, 37

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Anyone who wanted to be a minister in
Virginia had to have been sent by the bishops in England

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>The state would protect and defend
the church, but the colony offered very little for the livelihood of ministers,
resulting in a shortage of ministers willing to serve, and generally poor
education and poorer behavior among those who did. RHA, 40-42.

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>This resulted in the opening of the
first college in the southern colonies, the College of William and Mary, in
1693, with the purpose that Virginia youth, “might be piously educated in good
letters and manners,” and the church be provided with “a seminary of ministers
of the gospel,” and that “the Christian religion may be propagated amongst the
Western Indians, to the glory of Almighty God.” RHA, 43

<![if !supportLists]>b.   <![endif]>Roger Williams and Rhode Island

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Born in England in about 1603

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Raised by Anglican parents

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>As a teen, studied under famous
jurist, Sir Edward Coke, considered to be the greatest legal mind of 17th
century England.

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Attended Cambridge and, upon
graduating, would have had to sign the “Subscription Book,” which upheld the
doctrines of the Church of England.

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Upon graduation, he became a private
chaplain and found what he believed was the love of his life in Jane Whalley.

<![if !supportLists]>1.    <![endif]>From a higher class, Whalley was not
given permission to marry Williams.

<![if !supportLists]>2.    <![endif]>Williams went into severe depression,
requiring the assistance of a nurse.

<![if !supportLists]>3.    <![endif]>The nurse, Mary Barnard, ended up his
wife in 1629.


<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>1630 – In December, after a year of
watching persecution, Williams set sail for America.  He was a strong separatist at this point.

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>1631 – Opportunity knocks

<![if !supportLists]>1.    <![endif]>Williams is immediately offered one
of the most prestigious positions in the Americas, teacher in the Boston church

<![if !supportLists]>2.    <![endif]>He rudely refused, stating that the
group was not separate enough.


<![if !supportLists]>
to Salem, where he is offered a teaching position in the church.

<![if !supportLists]>1.    <![endif]>However, the powerful Boston
authorities, upset that Williams had rebuffed their offer, put civil pressure
on the Salem church to delay his hiring.
Winthrop expressed his amazement that the Salem church would seek to
make Williams a minister without conferring with Boston on the matter. 


In his journal, dated
April 12, 1631, he wrote, “therefore, they [the Boston court] marveled that
they [Salem] would choose him without advising with the council [Boston]; and
withal desiring him, that they would forbear to proceed till they had conferred
about it.”   Though the churches of the
area were congregational in their polity, the Salem church hesitated.  This is ironic, because Winthrop wrote a mere
two and a half years later that “they were all clear in that point, that no
church or person can have power over another church.”  


This, however, is precisely what
Boston had done, and Williams left the town after less than four months.  He headed south by ship, bypassing Boston, to
Plymouth in search of a people who more closely held his separatist


<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>1631–1633 – Williams goes to
Plymouth, where he is welcomed by the Separatists who had arrived on the
Mayflower a decade earlier. Served at a strong Separatist church for two

<![if !supportLists]>1.    <![endif]>It is here where he first began
interacting with the natives, and began to really develop his theology.

<![if !supportLists]>2.    <![endif]>After a while, however, the governor
of Plymouth, William Brewster, began expressing concern over some of Williams’
teaching.  In Brewster’s History Of Plimouth Plantation, the
governor wrote that Williams “began to fall into some strange opinions, and
from opinion to practice.”  


What this teaching was is
unclear, though it likely included Williams’ explosive comments about the
ownership of Indian land.  He called King
Charles I a liar in his assertion that all of Europe was part of Christendom,
as most Puritans regarded most of Europe as outside the true Church.  He also denied the validity of royal land
grants, effectively condemning those who did not obtain their land fairly from
the Indians. 


Though it is likely that
most of these discussions were private ones, such controversial opinions were
more than the Plymouth Puritans could bear.
Williams asked to be released from his position in the church, and left
Plymouth to return to Salem with a group of supporters in tow.

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>1633–1635 – Became minister at the
Salem Church, where his views were publicly pronounced

<![if !supportLists]>1.    <![endif]>Williams held the whites should buy
the land from the Indian.

<![if !supportLists]>2.    <![endif]>Williams held a lost person should
not be asked to swear an oath.

<![if !supportLists]>3.    <![endif]>Williams held that civil magistrates
were only to make decisions on temporal affairs.

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Called to court in April, and again
in October, 1635

<![if !supportLists]>1.    <![endif]>Had been publicly involved in
theological battles involving both Salem and Boston

<![if !supportLists]>a.    <![endif]>Women praying with their heads

<![if !supportLists]>b.   <![endif]>Taking of Indian land “without compensation
or negotiation”

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>This offence was horrible beyond
words.  To the Massachusetts authorities,
Williams was not only speaking an affront to the King, but was undermining the
existence of the colony itself!  If, as
Williams asserted, English colonization was “a sin of unjust usurpation upon
others’ possessions,” the entire foundation of Massachusetts itself was at

<![if !supportLists]>2.    <![endif]>Charges dismissed in April, but
compounded in October

<![if !supportLists]>a.    <![endif]>Williams spoke out openly about the
inappropriateness of forcing a man to swear “so help me God” in court, saying
that, were the swearer a non-believer, the civil authorities would be causing
him to break the third Commandment by taking the Lord’s name in vain.

<![if !supportLists]>b.   <![endif]>Williams believed that the civil
magistrate had no right to enforce matters of religion. 

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>The magistrate’s arm, Williams
argued, stretched only as far as was necessary to keep civil order.  Enforcing matters of conscience was the
prerogative of the Church, and could not rightly be made compulsory by civil


<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>1636 – Williams was to be deported to
England, but instead is able to escape and flee to the wilderness. “I was
sorely tossed for one fourteen weeks in a bitter winter season, not knowing
what bread and bed did mean . . . exposed to a winter’s miseries in a howling
wilderness of frost and snow.”

<![if !supportLists]>
asked to purchase a section of land on the bay from his friend, Canonicus, a
sachem of the Narragansett tribe.
Canonicus refused payment, gifting the land instead, and a friendship
began to develop that would endure until Canonicus’ death in 1647.  Canonicus so enjoyed his friendship with
Williams that he requested two things upon his death:  that he be buried with some cloth that had
been the last gift (of many) from Williams, and that Williams, whom he regarded
as a son, attend the funeral.

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Providence started in 1636.

<![if !supportLists]>1.    <![endif]>Became a refuge for those fleeing
religious persecution

<![if !supportLists]>2.    <![endif]>The settlers agreed that the town
should be a voluntary association, with agreements that, while voluntary, were
binding on those that lived there. 

<![if !supportLists]>3.    <![endif]>Williams believed that government was
indeed an agreement between rulers and their people, but that God did not
factor into it.  He was not saying that
God is not active in the world.  He was
saying, rather, that the interjection of a theoretical hand of God into matters
where His involvement was not clearly present was blasphemous.   Thus, a loose governmental structure was
established, by voluntary consent, with biweekly meetings to discuss town
business including planting and harvesting, division of land, and safeguarding
against Indian attacks. This voluntary association, with simple majority rule
in matters of civil affairs was, in Williams’ mind the most logical way to do

<![if !supportLists]>4.    <![endif]>1638/9 – Williams starts the first
Baptist church in the New World – now known as the First Baptist Church of
Providence, RI.

<![if !supportLists]>5.    <![endif]>1643 Published A Key to the Language of America, as an aid to communicating with
the Indians.


<![if !supportLists]>6.    <![endif]>Travels to London in summer of 1643
to secure a charter for Rhode Island

<![if !supportLists]>a.    <![endif]>The English civil war was in full

<![if !supportLists]>b.   <![endif]>Granted by Parliament in March 1644

<![if !supportLists]>7.    <![endif]>Traveled back to London in 1651,
where he would fight for a final Rhode Island charter for 12 years


<![if !supportLists]>c.    <![endif]>George Whitefield

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Born 12-27-1714, Gloucester, England

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Attended Oxford with John and Charles

<![if !supportLists]>1.    <![endif]>Became the leader of their ‘holy
club’ when the Wesleys left for North America.

<![if !supportLists]>a.    <![endif]>Was a committed Calvinist, which
caused a him and Wesley to part ways as far as ministry, though they remained

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Ordained in the Anglican church at
the age of 21, though the required age was 23. (IYCKI, 90-91)


<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Became a phenomenon in the first few
months of his preaching. Some pastors were angry because he was gaining such a
following and “waking their sleepy flocks.” (IYCKI, 91)

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Crossed the Atlantic 13 times during
his life, and on one preaching tour, traveled more than 2000 miles in one tour.

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Rode from New York to Charleston –
the longest horseback ride any white man had undertaken in North America.

<![if !supportLists]>

<![if !supportLists]>1.    <![endif]>Preached over 18,000 sermons -over
500 a year for each year of his career.

<![if !supportLists]>2.    <![endif]>Preached to crowds as large as
25,000. (READ IYCKI, 81-82)

<![if !supportLists]>3.    <![endif]>Focused on equality in the sight of
God, and personal conversion.

<![if !supportLists]>a.    <![endif]>Christian faith was not about
behavior, but belief. Once salvation happened, behavior would naturally follow.

<![if !supportLists]>b.   <![endif]>“That the poor and uneducated have
value is something we today take for granted, but it is something that came
into history only because of what began here, when this young man announced to
the unwashed rabble that there was someone who cared about them, who loved
them, and who sought their company.” (IYCKI, 96)

<![if !supportLists]>c.    <![endif]>This equality in the sight of God
threatened the social order.

<![if !supportLists]>4.    <![endif]>Impact and Legacy

<![if !supportLists]>a.    <![endif]>Unity (IYCKI, 100)

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>“This egalitarian “born-again” faith
fit well with the American character, because it supported the idea that different
denominations could coexist and respect one another, that their similarities
were more important than their differences.” (IYCKI, 102)

<![if !supportLists]>b.   <![endif]>A pattern of right behavior following
conversion – Franklin observed (IYCKI, 101-102)

<![if !supportLists]>III.

<![if !supportLists]>a.    <![endif]>The Dream of Self-Government

<![if !supportLists]>
<![endif]>Self-government – the heart of the
American idea – in the eyes of the founders, 2 components are required (IYCKI
32 ff)

<![if !supportLists]>1.    <![endif]> A structure that limited monopolies on power
within the government

<![if !supportLists]>2.    <![endif]>A virtuous people

<![if !supportLists]>

<![if !supportLists]>b.   <![endif]>The Morality of Revolution

<![if !supportLists]>c.    <![endif]>Deists or Theists

<![if !supportLists]>IV.

<![if !supportLists]>V.
and Symbols